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General citation styles used in academic writing

According to the Oxford dictionary, a citation is a quotation from or reference to a book, paper, or author, especially in a scholarly work. The use of citations is enormously stressed upon in academia. You are required to acknowledge the source in case of using the idea from that particular source to avoid plagiarism. There are several styles appropriate for various disciplines that are implemented. The referencing method is also adjusted as per the citation style adopted.  

 While writing a paper for a particular journal, one must keep in mind the journals adopted the style for citations and references. Citations can be used in-text when you are paraphrasing in a dissertation conclusion or as footnotes; style differs with the kind of publication (book, journal, or dissertation).

American Psychological Association-APA Style

It was created by the American Psychological Association, initially used in psychology and social sciences, now adopted in various other fields. This system uses author-date in parenthesis for the in-text citation. Most commonly, the APA style is used in a research paper, social science theses, and dissertation conclusion.

In-text citation:

Give both names separated by the word and when including the names in the text of a sentence. For citations in parentheses, use an ampersand (&). E.g. (Flannigan & McBride, 2001). 

Reference entry

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Modern Language Association-MLA style

MLA style is most commonly used in the modern academic essay, humanities documentation, and is most widely used in English essays. MLA uses parenthetical citation with name or names of authors and page number enclosed in parenthesis. Mostly uses a page titled works cited at the end of the document.

For reference entries:

Books – author's surname, first name, book title punctuated, place of publication: publisher, year.  

Periodical/Magazine/Journal – author's surname, first name, "Title of the Article" in quotations, the title of the periodical, date of periodical, pages.

Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)      

Two types of CMS citations are used. Chicago A makes use of footnote entry while numbering the source in the text. Chicago B uses the author-date system in the text.

Example-Chicago A

Intext: This information is beneficial for healthy people.1 

Footnote: 1- John Doe and Jane Doe, Healthy People (Chicago: New Press, 2020).

Bibliography: Doe, John, and Jane Doe, Healthy People. Chicago: New Press, 2020.

Example-Chicago B

b: For two authors, Simmons and Green (1997, 62) were unable to travel. For more than two authors, use the surname of the primary author and add et al. and then add date, e.g. (Forman et al. 1987, 62-63). 

Bibliography: Doe, John. and Jane Doe, Healthy People. Chicago: New Press, 2020.

Turabian Style

Turabian style is very similar to CMS. It is mostly used in student research papers and uses author-date citation for the in-text citation. It is a simplified version of CMS and is getting popular, and a lot of journals are accepting the Turabian style of citation now.

This is a brief of some majorly used citation styles for more detailed information. Consider this guide encasing different styles of citation adopted globally in academic spheres.